Graphite refers to the part of a pencil that draws the line. It IS graphite and thus it is the same stuff that is used as a lubricant. Thus when really laid down in a heavy way -- it will be almost like an oil and have a shiny surface that somewhat repels other media -- just like oil repels water. In the old days the center of a pencil was called lead because originally it was lead. And along with this, 'silver point' is also made with silver wire that is held (now) in a mechanical pencil. The rougher and tougher the surface that you are drawing on -- the more graphite, lead or silver will be rubbed and left from the 'pencil'.

Standard pencil refers to any writing pencil and usually one with a #2 'lead' or graphite core -- it traditionally was the yellow pencil with the eraser on the end (that you don't want to use for drawing!).
Tip: Instead of using a pink eraser (or a white or clear eraser), use a gray kneaded eraser that you get at the art store.

6B pencil refers to a drawing pencil that is available at art stores. Think of the B as standing for Bold or for Butter as this is a SOFTER graphite and it is darker and usually makes a wider line. The standard pencil (mentioned above) is closest to a 2B pencil. A 4B pencil is a good all around pencil that doesn't change to a different DARKER color as the 6B and higher number B's do. Usually you can find up to a 9B pencil -- possibly higher -- the higher the number the softer and darker the drawing pencil.

3H pencil refers to a HARDER drawing pencil that is found in art stores. (Think 'H' for HARD). Because it is harder -- it makes a LIGHTER line that usually is finer. This is a good pencil with which to START a drawing. Because it is so light -- it erases easily with the kneaded eraser as long as you have not PRESSED HARD to make it darker.
Tip: You don't want to etch the paper -- draw lightly and use a softer pencil (the 'B's') if you want to make darker marks. So don't press your pencil into the paper to make darker lines -- instead switch UP to one of the B drawing pencils.

HB pencil is right in the middle -- it is the darkest of the H's and the lightest of the B's.

Woodless pencils and pencil sticks are pencils without wood. The pencils have a plastic like coating on the outside of the solid graphite. Woodless pencils are good because there is more graphite available in a greater width and they are easier to use for a wider application/line. The pencil sticks are chunkier 'sticks' of graphite that are fatter than a pencil and also have no encasing.